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Synopses of papers


The following are synopses of papers and working cost/operational reports published in the Power Engineer from 1997 to date.





Volume 15 Issue 2, June 2011 - P582

The history of the industrial gas turbine: Part 1 The first fifty years 1940-1990


This history of the industrial gas turbine documents the history of the development of gas turbines for land based, locomotive and marine applications.  A key part of the history is the documentation of all manufacturers and gas turbine models produced each year since 1940.  The aircraft engine is excluded from the scope of the work and only referred to in as far as it related to the development of industrial machines gas turbines. It has not been possible, up to the time of publication, to include every company who were active in the development of industrial gas turbine however the research work is continuing and it is planned to add to this history in due course.


This paper (Part 1) deals with the first fifty years of development of the industrial gas turbine from 1940 to 1990.  It is planned that a second paper (Part 2) will be presented later in 2011 covering the period 1990 onwards.  


Volume 15 Issue 1, March 2011 - P580

Stationary MAN B&W MC-S engines for biofuel applications


The stationary power plant market has also been affected by the green wave. In order to meet market needs MAN Diesel & Turbo has investigated the possibilities for the two-stroke low speed diesel engines of the MAN B&W design with a positive result. The biofuel oil is delivered in a variety of qualities and for the refined biofuel types this area is already covered by the medium speed engines. Therefore, it was logical to investigate the possibilities of running on crude biofuel oil. As a result of this approach MAN Diesel & Turbo has prepared a guiding biofuel oil specification. MAN Diesel & Turbo has designed the 7L35MC-S engine type, which has already been running at Brake Power Plant in Germany for more than 6000 hours on crude palm oil. Currently, an order for two engines of the 7K60MC-S type, each developing 13.9 MW at 150 RPM, will be delivered for the locations of Beckton and Southall, UK. The diesel engines for UK will not only produce power, but also deliver heat to a gas expander unit.


Volume 14 Issue 5, December 2010 - P578

Dhekelia ICE - a modern fast track low speed plant


Dhekelia Internal Combustion Engines – ICE - is a 50 MW diesel power plant located on the east coast of Cyprus, north of Larnaka. The plant was contracted in November 2007 and handed over in May 2009. The Dhekelia plant is a conventional plant with 3 low speed diesel engines of type MAN-B&W Mitsui 12K50MC-S, each of 18 MW at 176,5 rpm. The plant is sea water cooled.


This paper describes the plant, the engine design with a single turbocharger, and the measures taken on design, logistics and construction for accomplishing the fast track execution.


At the time of ordering the plant, suppliers of large components were operating at peak load causing many difficulties resulting in long delivery time. This

caused extreme demands for fast action during the erection on site. Due to the single turbocharger arrangement, the structural vibration condition deviates to some extent from well-known behaviour in former plants with similar engines. The “T-mode” vibrations of the engines are controlled by active force compensators.


The plant performance in terms of power and efficiency has been fully satisfactory. As the plant is operated in parallel with steam turbines, the engines are in most of the operation period used with daily start and stop, utilizing the optimal flexibility of the diesel engines.  The performance of the engines has been closely monitored with regular port inspections. Very low wear rates of cylinders and piston rings have been demonstrated.


Volume 14 Issue 3, September/October 2010 - P577

An analysis of micro gas turbines for UK domestic combined heat and power


For Domestic Combined Heat and Power (DCHP) applications, large component losses are inevitable when using a Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) prime mover of 1kW or less due to low mass flows and high operating speeds. MGT research has developed advanced technological strategies to address the particular issues of bearing platform, impeller design and impeller manufacture. This paper seeks to establish the performance criteria for an alternative, low cost MGT DCHP machine via an analytical discussion based on adiabatic, air standard cycle analysis.


Break-even DCHP system efficiencies were derived for various operating strategies; a target prime mover efficiency of 15% was established. The detrimental effect of low component efficiencies on the Brayton cycle made the DCHP performance targets a significant challenge. As a result, a simple cycle machine was considered unsuitable for DCHP application.


A competitive recuperated MGT was deemed suitable only when slightly optimistic turbomachinery efficiencies were considered. The introduction of pressure drops from heat exchange combined with poor component performance produced shallow inflection points on a system efficiency vs. pressure ratio curve. Selecting a pressure ratio below that which corresponded with maximal efficiency reduced shaft speed with some compromise in system efficiency. Both the use of efficient turbomachinery components (at low cost) and an effective heat exchanger with low pressure drops are essential for a successful MGT DCHP unit.


Volume 14 Issue 3, September/October 2010 - P576

The evolution of gas turbine compressor cleaning


This paper looks at the evolution of gas turbine compressor cleaning, and relates it to the various technical advances in the development of gas turbines. It starts with a reminder of how fouling affects the aerodynamics of the compressor and hence the necessity for compressor washing.

 

The early days of cleaning compressors with very basic materials and methods are described, as used on the relatively unsophisticated types of gas turbines of the time. Moving on through the 60s and 70s and the introduction of single crystal blades and super-alloys, it goes into the move from hand cleaning to cleaning at crank speeds, and so on to the latest cleaning technology employed today.

 

The development of wash fluids is also presented, from tap water up to the latest sophisticated blends of chemicals .

 

Evolving nozzle design and positions in the intake plenum is examined in some detail. Increasing air flows, and developments in compressor blade design, have influenced the importance of droplet formation and hence nozzle design.

 

Environmental legislation is covered briefly, with its influence on gas turbine development and hence cleaning methods.

 

The degree of automating wash systems is discussed as the efficiency demands on the industry become greater.


Volume 14 Issue 2, June 2010 - P575

Carbon capture and storage implications for CCGT development


This paper describes the various methods of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applicable to Gas Turbines (GT) and CCGT plant, focusing on the three most advanced technologies: post-combustion chemical capture of CO2 from GT exhaust; gasification of coal with pre-combustion CO2 capture followed by combustion of low carbon fuel in a GT; and oxyfuel technology, or combustion of gas with oxygen rather than air. The current status of each technology is described and possible future developments are considered.


The technical issues involved in both CCS equipped new-build thermal plant and retrofit of CCS to existing and future thermal plant are described, including both space requirements and design implications. The meaning of Carbon Capture Ready is discussed and the impacts of the new EU and UK consenting regime for thermal plant are presented.  


The impact of the different types of CCS on operation of CCGT and SCGT is discussed.  


The cost of power generation from thermal plant fitted with CCS is presented in comparison with other power generation options.  


The paper also includes a discussion of possible developments in the future CCS industry, including transportation and storage networks.


Volume 14 Issue 1, March 2010 - P573

Biomass - going that extra mile!


Biomass is seen as being an important renewable energy resource and a key component in helping to deliver the Government’s greenhouse gas emission reduction targets as set out in the Climate Change Act 2008, ie a 34% reduction in the UK’s net carbon account by 2020, rising to 80% by 2050 (versus a 1990 baseline) and, the UK’s target under EU legislation to produce 15% of its energy requirement from renewable sources by 2020.


This article primarily refers to combustible biomass material typically categorised as ‘plant biomass’, although many of the challenges faced with utilising this fuel source equally apply to other biomass materials.  To date, viable, medium sized industrial and commercial scale biomass has proven challenging to implement due to the added complexity and cost, versus say traditional fossil fuel heat/steam production, power or CHP plant.  Increased complexity typically arises out of fuel; its availability, storage and handling, the physical plant size and duty, environmental compliance, capital cost, etc.  This has meant that the number of developments delivered to date has fallen short of what might have been expected.


This paper seeks to outline some of the key challenges and considerations to be addressed in assessing whether biomass offers a sustainable and viable option to companies and in doing so may offer some insight into why many organisations in the UK have so far rejected or ‘parked’ a potential biomass solution.  However, whilst highlighting these challenges, I also hope that some additional guidance may allow interested parties to also consider the ‘positives’ and thus encourage them to give some serious thought to the opportunity that biomass may have to offer them in their specific situation.


Volume 13 Issue 5, December 2009 - P572

Product Development and test program for aggressive gas engines


Engine designs, operating conditions, and environmental factors place increasingly higher demands on lubricants for all gas engines, but even more so those operating on the aggressive gas applications associated with sewage and landfill gases.  This paper will focus on the product developed specifically for such applications, and where the fuel contains high amounts of silicon along with other contaminants, presenting an especially difficult lubricating environment.


Increased engine reliability, extended time between engine overhauls, and reduced operating costs were the primary objectives of the development program.  This paper will cover general aspects of the laboratory development program and present documentation on the excellent field performance achieved.


Volume 13 Issue 4, November 2009 - P570

Operational Report 2009


Volume 13 Issue 3, September 2009 - P571

Industry-University collaboration:  a case study between Manx Electricity Authority and Cranfield University


In the volatile energy market effective use of the available technological, energy and financial resources is now, more than ever, highly pursued.  In a combined cycle power plant, gas turbines are the prime mover of power generation.  Therefore, detailed understanding and monitoring of gas turbine performance, health condition and associated costs have a deep impact on the decision making process concerning the plant’s operational and maintenance strategy.


In this context, research collaboration between Manx Electricity Authority (MEA) and Cranfield University has been carried out since 2001 and a series of technologies and software have been and are still being developed at Cranfield University and some of them have been integrated into MEA’s Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant in Pulrose, Isle of Man.  During this constructive and successful collaboration period, the University has been fortunate to acknowledge the industrial needs and make significant academic contributions through ongoing research projects jointly supported by both MEA and EPSRC.  On the other hand, MEA has valued the complexity of asset management concerning the gas turbine and the combined cycle, therefore enhancing its trading and operational capabilities through the application of developed performance, diagnostic, trading and economic analysis software.


This paper presents the main framework of this collaboration by emphasising the research undertaken on the gas turbine performance simulation and diagnostics, combined cycle performance analysis, trading and economic analysis to support MEA in their decision making process.


Volume 13 Issue 2, June 2009 – P568

Barking Power Station generator core failure and repair process


Core failures on running turbo-generators are rare, however when such failures occur they are often sudden and usually lead to major equipment damage which will need significant specialist engineering to repair. Repair durations can be lengthy and arduous which often relate to substantial loss of revenue for the business.  This paper discusses the tools available to carry out the diagnosis and subsequent cause of the fault and the Engineering and risk management processes adopted to return the generator unit back to reliable service in the shortest possible time.


Volume 13 Issue 1, March 2009 – P567

The Tri-O-Gen Organic Rankine Cycle:  Development and perspectives


The principle of the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) is well known already for decades.  However, most of the present ORC-plants are based on conventional turbine technology, which includes shaft seals, a reduction gear and a lubricating oil system.  A new turbo-generator concept has been developed, using Toluene as a working fluid and lubricant.  This concept allows a completely hermetic design, with no need for shaft seals or a separate lubrication system.  Toluene is a combustible solvent, but it has a high thermal stability and is not marked as poisonous.


The ORC process demands a very high expansion ratio, at moderate turbine inlet temperature.  A standard 175 kW (gross power) unit is able to run at optimum speed for turbine and pump on the same shaft as the high-speed generator.


This paper will describe the novel turbo-generator as well as the total packaged system, as it recently has been introduced on the market.


Volume 12 Issue 5, December 2008 – P566

The power and control systems design for the UK future aircraft carrier


At 65,000 tonnes the Future Carrier (CVF) represents a step change in British force projection capability, with the ability to embark more than 30 aircraft of various types to undertake a range of differing roles. Behind such a ship there must be a generating capability that is able to provide large amounts of power for both the ship's propulsion and services, rapidly, reliably and economically. An Integrated Full Electric Propulsion (IFEP) system has been selected as the most suitable for this task.  


At the heart of this system are two MT30 Gas Turbine Alternators (GTAs), each capable of producing 35MW of electrical power to propel the ship at high speeds. This speed is necessary to launch advanced fighter aircraft and helicopters to enable this modern capital ship to perform a multitude of tasks. A variety of challenges are currently being faced to integrate these large GTAs into a power and propulsion system that also features Diesel Generators (DGs), power electronic converters and Advanced Induction Motors (AIMs).  Solutions to these issues are being developed by the Aircraft Carrier Alliance (ACA), which is responsible for procuring the ship, working closely with the MoD and the engine manufacturer to provide a robust, reliable and responsive power source that is fully integrated with the propulsion system.  


Volume 12 Issue 4, November 2008 Operational Report 2008

P565 The demands of a new running regime for slow-speed diesel engines


Since the island of Guernsey became electrically connected to mainland France in 2000, a significant, yet highly variable, proportion of the island’s electricity demand has been imported through the submarine cable interconnector. The existing power plant on the island, comprising five slow-speed diesel generators, has subsequently been required to provide only the remaining proportion of the island’s electricity demand. This change of operating duty, from base load to intermittent and peak lopping duties, was widely anticipated to create operating difficulties for the engines, since these are duty cycles for which the engines are unsuited.


This paper examines some of the issues associated with operating the slow speed engines over recent years, describes some of the particular and unusual problems encountered, and the steps taken to overcome them. The paper concludes with a look forward at the continuing operation of the engines, and the uncertainty surrounding their life expectancy.


Volume 12 Issue 3, September 2008 – P564

The management of variability and intermittency of electrical power supply


This paper outlines how Wessex Water utilises its multiple small-diesel generation capacity within the framework of the electricity trading market of the UK set-up to manage intermittency and variability of supply.  The paper demonstrates how these existing mechanisms could readily accommodate the variability and intermittency of large-scale renewable energy supplies.


Volume 12 Issue 2, June 2008

Low container ship speed facilitated by versatile ME/ME-C engines


Recently, fuel oil prices have risen to unprecedented levels, bringing fuel oil consumption of diesel engines more into focus than for a long time. At the same time, exhaust gas emissions in general and CO2 emission in particular are top priorities.


The use of di-methyl-ether as alternative fuel in gas turbines for power generation


In the last fifteen years large heavy-duty gas turbine plant for power generation has been the technology of choice for the electric industry world-wide. For peak load power generation, distillate fuel oil can be used but this reduces the environmental performance of the gas turbine compared to natural gas as well as increasing the cost of maintenance.


Di-Methyl-Ether (DME) can be synthesised from methanol or directly from synthesis gas and has been used to power converted compression ignition engines. Various schemes have been proposed for large scale DME production using natural gas, coal or biomass as a feedstock.


A multi-cluster gas turbine burner has recently been developed which addresses the problems of flashback and spontaneous combustion experience when firing DME in standard or Dry Low NOx burners. The DME Burner shows promising combustion efficiency and dynamic pressure performance and is capable of meeting a NOx emission limit of less than 25ppm NOx @15% O2.


The objective of this report is to verify whether DME is a clean, renewable and economic alternative fuel that could be viably used in a simple cycle gas turbine power plant to generate peaking electricity.


Volume 12 Issue 1, March 2008 – P562

Gaseous and particulate emissions control from stationary engines and turbines


Ever tightening legislative controls on transport emissions mean that the relative impact of air pollution from stationary sources such as chemical plants, industrial processes and heat and power generation applications, is now more significant than ever.


The exhaust from stationary reciprocating engines and gas turbines contains a cocktail of harmful gaseous pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAP).  Together with emissions of particulate matter (PM), if not controlled, they can lead to major health problems and contribute significantly to climate change and environmental pollution.


Today, a veritable toolbox of pre- and post-treatment techniques is available to engine designers and engineers to control emissions from stationary engines and turbines.  With a proven track record of reliability and success, catalytic and filter-based after-treatment technologies represent one of the practical and most cost-effective options.


This paper profiles a number of case studies illustrating the range of state-of-the-art catalyst and filter-based technologies available to engineers and environmental managers to control NOx, PM, CO and/or HC present in the exhaust of gas turbines and stationary internal combustion engines.


Volume 11 Issue 5, December 2007 – P561

The use of biomass derived fast pyrolysis liquids in power generation:  engines and turbines


Power production from biomass derived pyrolysis liquids has been under development for over 15 years. If technically successful, it would make decentralised bio-energy production possible. Several technologies and system components have been developed by academia, R&D organisations, and industrial companies in many countries. Considerable experience has been gained and many useful results published, however there is still a lack of long term operational experience.  The present work aims at reviewing the most significant experience in power generation from biomass liquids produced by fast pyrolysis processes.  Power plant technologies addressed are: diesel engines, gas turbines, and natural gas/steam power plants and the main results are reviewed with further R&D needs identified. The analysis shows that even for the most promising solutions long-term demonstration has not yet been achieved.  Pyrolysis liquids used in gas turbine plants and in co-firing mode in large power stations are technically most advanced.  Recent work with diesel engines also appears quite promising and further development in this area is required.


Volume 11 Issue 4, September 2007 – P560

The development of the TD2010 engine concept


The Industrial Diesel Engine manufacturing company of Deutz AG identified the need to expand its range into smaller displacement engines.  To further this strategy the company purchased the Technical Centre and new small engine range from the administrators of Lister Petter Ltd in 2004.  These engines were designated the Deutz (T)D2009 and D2008 range of engines. To further expand this range of engines, Deutz UK were requested

to consider the design of a larger version of this family.


This new engine was to be designated the TD2010.  The engine was to share the (T)D2009 and D2008 engine concepts and hence complete the engine “family”.


Volume 11 Issue 3, June 2007

Emergency Diesel Standby Generator’s Potential Contribution to Dealing with Renewable Energy Sources Intermittency and Variability


Wessex Water has about 4.5 MW of continuously operating biogas CHP generation capacity.  This is provided by spark ignited gas engines.  It also has about 32 emergency standby diesel engines, totally 18 MW whose primary function is to power essential services – sewage works and water supply works during power failures.  They are also used in a number of ways, which is called collectively Load Management, and which includes routinely supporting the National Grid.  These generators have a 4 minute start up and paralleling capability, and are currently being modified to enable start ups in less than one minute.


Volume 11 Issue 2, August 2007 – Operational Report – P557

Operational Report – stationery engines, gas engines and gas turbines with alternative technology interfaces 2007


Volume 11 Issue 1, February 2007 – P555

Modern Engine Control Systems for Common Rail Engines, Gas Engines and Dual Fuel Engines


Due to recent emission legislation and the current increase in oil price on the world market as a result of the energy demand, gaseous fuels are becoming more and more a valuable source to produce power.  Within the OEM market of medium bore engine builders a series of developments is ongoing to either develop a dual fuel application or create a propulsion version out of a land based Spark Ignited gas engine.


Dual fuel application within the range of 30 to 60cm bore are seen in the LNG tanker market and are strongly upcoming in the electric power generation, both new and as retrofit package.


Volume 10 Issue 5, December 2006 – P554

Experiences of Peterborough Power Station during 2005 Overhaul


This paper is intended to give an insight into the work carried out during the Major Overhaul at Peterborough Power Station.  Its main focus will be the work carried out on the two Frame 9E Gas Turbines but will also touch on some of the other work undertaken during this period.


Volume 10 Issue 4, September 2006 – P553

Utilisation of Low BTU Gases in Spark Ignition Reciprocating Engines – Requirements and Experiences


Increased ecological consciousness and the knowledge of limited reserves of primary energy in the form of fossil fuels make it necessary to utilise available energy sources economically.  Cogeneration plants with gas engines produce electricity and heat at decentralised locations, where they are required.  They offer optimal efficiency in the utilisation of energy with minimum environmental burden.


Gas engines are presently powered primarily with natural gas, biogas or propane.  The use of “special gases” like producer gases, coke gas, pyrolysis gas or gas from gasification processes gas with low calorific values or changing gas compositions with respect to emission limits of the common air quality requirements is a new challenge for gas engine development.  Highly sophisticated gas engines with intelligent engine management systems now allow the utilisation of gases, which could not be burned a few years ago.  Jenbacher AG has already installed cogeneration plants running with coke gas (55% H2 content), pyrolysis gas from domestic waste gasification (35% H2 content), gas from wood chip gasifier and producer gas from the chemical industry with an extreme low heating value (0.5 kWh/m3).


These experiences have shown, that the gases from gasifier or pyrolysis gas from waste can be used in gas engines, as long as the gas fulfils certain requirements.


Volume 10 Issue 3, June 2006 – P552

Power Management Systems in Gas Turbine Power Stations


Two power management systems (PMS) that have been retrofitted in Gas Turbine Power Stations will be reviewed.  The addition of a PMS to an existing power station will improve reliability, reduce ‘blackouts’ and eliminate many of the operator’s mundane tasks.  The paper will also review the main features of a PMS explaining how it can be implemented in hardware and software.  The basic logics are independent of the hardware platform, which can be chosen to be similar to existing control systems in the plant.


Volume 10 Issue 2, May 2006 – Working Cost and Operational Report – P551

Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2006


Volume 10 Issue 1, February 2006 – P550

An Emerging Technology – Performance and Condition Monitoring of Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines via Acoustic Emission Measurements


Demand for condition monitoring of diesel engines and gas turbines has advanced at a rapid pace in recent years.  Stimulated by the continual drive for improved performance, be it for mechanical, economic, safety or environmental reasons, operational safety margins have diminished and in some cases have been replaced by a delicate balance between optimal operation and damaging conditions.  Consequently, the need for monitoring and for better-quality diagnostic information has increased.  This has initiated the development of a number of new monitoring techniques.  One of the most promising, Acoustic Emission (AE) analysis, is the topic of this paper.


This work describes the novel use of AE measurements to provide information pertaining to the running condition of diesel engines and to a lesser extent, gas turbines.  For diesel engine applications an AE sensor placed on the external engine surface is shown to reveal detailed information regarding engine events such as fuel injection and valve activity.  Most promisingly the ability to offer non-intrusive monitoring of the critical piston ring/cylinder liner interface is described, a process that has traditionally been difficult to inspect in-situ and one which poses significant problems for marine diesels.


The findings regarding the ring/liner interface are established through testing on large, 2-stroke marine diesels and small HSDI engines.  For the large engines, AE is shown to be sensitive to the cyclic fluctuation of in-cylinder pressure and to a variation of lubricating condition.  Regarding HSDI engines, AE is proposed to arise as a result of boundary friction and/or hydrodynamic lubrication.  Encouraging studies have also been conducted on a gas turbine where AE has shown to be responsive to variations in the machine operation, including induced blade damage.


Applications and Cost Effectiveness of Micro-Gas Turbines


Microturbines are an exciting new product offering advantages for small-scale chp and the utilisation of biogases for electricity and heat production.  They have low emissions of NOx and CO, low noise and vibration, reliable operation with minimal maintenance and small module size.  The performance of microturbines is shown to be successful on natural gas, landfill gas and sewage gas.  Natural gas fired units have achieved high availabilities with lower operating costs than comparable reciprocating engines.  Units have been developed for biogas applications with five now operating and the lead units now up to in excess of 7,500 hours.  Although availability on these is slightly reduced due to problems with the gas fuel metering valves, the major components (combustion chamber, turbine and recuperator) have shown no sign of corrosion, erosion or deposits build up.  Microturbines have a higher capital cost but lower operating cost than comparably sized reciprocating engines.  Installation costs can be lower for microturbines and their low weight, noise and vibration permit a wider choice of options.  Selection of technology needs to be made following a proper assessment of full installation and lifetime costs for a particular site.


Volume 9 Issue 5, December 2005 – P549

The Ecotran Rotating Gasifier – Generating Power from Waste


The Ecotran Gasification process is designed to gasify waste fuel in an environmentally friendly manner.  The system converts the waste in a rotating gasifier to produce a quality pyrolysis gas that can then be used to fuel either a reciprocating gas engine or a gas turbine for the generation of electricity.


Either dry or wet waste fuel is delivered to the plant.  If the fuel is wet, it may be discharged into a centrifuge-drying unit where the free water is removed to a liquid effluent system.  The fuel passes via the conveying system to the dryer where it is dried inside a heated dryer tube where heat evaporates off the moisture.  The dried fuel is then conveyed to the dry fuel hopper.  The fuel is then fed via an elaborate feed system, to avoid the ingress of air, into the gasifier where it is heated to separate the gas (methane) from the solid (char).  The gas is cooled in the gas quench unit where it is also cleaned.  The gas is then used to fuel a gas engine to generate electricity.  The formation of hydrogen is minimised by Ecotran’s unique patented design.


Unlike other systems the Ecotran system used the char (fuel with the gas removed) to heat the gasifier and not the gas produced.  The char is cooled then fed by a screw conveyor to a small grinder where the char is ground into a powder and stored in a hopper.  Oils and tars that are carried over with the gas are removed by a quench system and oil separator and stored in a storage vessel.  From storage the oils are used as a fuel along with char via burners to fuel the secondary converter.


Waste heat from the gasifier and, if required the waste heat from the gas engine, is used to provide steam energy to support the fuel drying and cooking ovens, buildings etc.


The current Ecotran design is capable of handling 0.5 tonnes per hour of dry fuel with a wide range of waste materials and these can typically produce up to 0.77MW electrical power.  Designs are available for plants of 0.5 t/h, 1.0 t/h, 2.5 t/h, 5 t/h and to handle up to 10 t/h dry waste material into the gasifier.

Volume 9 Issue 4, September 2005

P547 – The Development of the High Speed Industrial Diesel Engine


This paper is aimed at introducing the design, application and testing techniques used to develop the modern high speed diesel engine.  The paper will compare and contrast the engine types, technologies and development techniques between the large engine and it’s smaller high speed cousin.  It is hoped that the paper will provide an insight into the challenges faced by the design and development of the modern high speed industrial engines and where possible that will be directly contrasted with the author’s experience in the large engine industry.


P548 – Developing a secure power supply for an island community


This paper looks at the process and reasoning by which decisions on energy supply were taken.  It is in two parts; firstly describing the historical context and circumstance that initiated the need for additional energy supplied, followed by a description of the newest plant provided to meet that need.


Volume 9 Issue 3, June 2005

P544 - Aero-derivative Gas Turbines for Marine and Industrial Applications


Over the past 40 years the main driving force behind the development of the gas turbine has been in its application as an aircraft propulsion unit.  The large aero production base and the demand for more efficient engines justified the huge investment in technology necessary to develop the aero engine to its current state.  To maximise the benefit gained from the successful development of its aero gas turbines, Rolls-Royce applies the same technology into its Marine and Energy gas turbines.  The application of aero gas turbines is very diverse, thanks to its flexibility and high power density.  Gas turbines are now applied in various markets from civil and defence aerospace to marine propulsion, power generation in marine and energy applications and oil and gas pumping.  This paper describes the latest aero-derivative gas turbines developed by Rolls-Royce for the Marine and Energy sectors.


P546 – Hydrogen, Heat and Power from Waste


A move towards energy sustainability requires not just the utilisation of natural resources (such as wind, tide, solar and hydro), but also the exploiting of primary energy sources in ways which result in minimal or no addition to those mechanisms understood to lead to global warming in particular.  The options for this latter criterion are limited, especially in a nuclear-averse society and against the backdrop that the exploitation of new oil and gas fields is becoming increasingly expensive, and that worldwide, the reserves are rapidly decreasing.


At the same time, there has been considerable focus on domestic waste, brought about by the realisation that landfill does not represent a responsible solution, either to resource use or to the prevention of the release of a number of the same gases that are being blamed for global warming.


An ideal solution to both of the above would be to utilise what domestic waste cannot effectively be recycled, to contribute to the primary energy deficit.  Mass burn incineration has been fulfilling this role for some years.  As a technology, it is efficient in reducing landfill (about 90% by volume and 75% by weight1), and also releases energy, the heat released being used to generate electricity, though at relatively low efficiency (about 20%2).  Incineration, however, is not able to substitute directly for transport fuels, and there are still residual concerns about some combustion products (such as dioxins) which makes the consenting of new facilities very difficult.


An alternative is to gasify the waste and produce hydrogen gas.  This technology produces less (or no) landfill, generates electricity at a higher efficiency (about 35% for a 100MW facility), offers a direct substitute for transport fuels, and produces none of the harmful combustion products ascribed to incineration plants.


This paper describes the waste gasification technology, the production of hydrogen, and its use as a substitute fuel in prime movers – internal combustion (spark ignition) engines and gas turbines and fuel cells.  It is based on a study that was commissioned to investigate the practicability of deriving hydrogen using energy from waste, initially by Gloucestershire Waste Action Trust (GWAT), whose work was taken over by The Recycling Consortium, funded by Cory Environmental under the Landfill Tax Credit Scheme.  Support has also been obtained from the Energy Saving Trust.


Volume 9 Issue 2, May 2005 – Working Cost and Operational Report – P545

Working Cost and Operational Report - Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2004


Volume 9 Issue 1, February 2005 – P543

Gaz de France Energy:  The first LNG carrier of a new generation


For the past forty years, steam turbine installations have dominated propulsion and electric power generation onboard LNG carriers.  The ease with which these installations can utilise boil-off gas and their apparent reliability have kept them in a position that has long been lost to diesel engines in all other segments of the shipping industry.  Steam turbine installations are however not very efficient.  This has a negative impact on both the ship’s operating economy and its exhaust gas emissions.  Exactly these issues play an increasingly important role in LNG shipping today.


Initially encouraged by the latest developments in its gas engine technology, Wartsila started looking for more economic and environmentally friendly ways to power LNG carriers.  Machinery alternatives with two and four-stroke diesel, high-pressure gas-diesel and low-pressure dual-fuel engines, in mechanical and electric propulsion arrangements, with and without boil-off reliquefication plants, were studied.  Dual-fuel-electric installations were found to be the most attractive alternative to steam turbine installations.


The first dual-fuel-electric carrier, Gaz de France Energy, will take to the sea later this year and two more dual-fuel-electric LNG carriers are on order.  Further orders for dual-fuel-electric LNG carriers are expected any time soon.


Volume 8 Issue 5, December 2004 – P542

Design and Development of the Rolls-Royce Bergen BV – G Lean Burn Gas Engine


RR Bergen gas engine development goes back to 1984.  At that time, after careful evaluation of possible alternatives, the spark-ignited pre-chamber lean burn gas concept was selected as the most promising for high specific power, and with prospects of high efficiency and low emissions as well.  In 1990 RR Bergen introduced the KV – G type gas engine at 170kW per cyl/500mg NOx (at 5% 02)/40%kW per cyl/250mg NOx (at 5% 02)/43% efficiency.  Meanwhile, more than 300 KV-gas engines with a total output over 1,000MW are in operation.  Because the mean effective pressure of a spark ignited gas engine usually is knock-limited, the given operating parameters at the different customer sites pose definite restrictions to the attainable site performance.  Consequently an engine with a larger swept volume is an effective way to significantly increase available power within the limitations of the actual operating conditions.  Therefore, RR Bergen has introduced a significantly larger and more powerful engine, the new B35:40V – gas engine range of currently 4.5-8.5MW, in order to widen our power band.


Volume 8 Issue 4, September 2004

P539 – First Prototype of the high efficiency Isoengine


For more than 10 years, Innogy (now RWE Innogy) has been developing a new type of high-efficiency reciprocating internal combustion engine – called the “isoengine”.  The engine has separate cylinders for compression and combustion and (when fully developed) is predicted to generate power at net electrical plant efficiencies of up to 60% with unit sizes in the range of about 3-20MWe.  A 3MW prototype isoengine was constructed and the first fuel was injected in October 2002.  In August 2003, a Partnership Agreement was signed between Innogy and Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding concerning future development and testing of the isoengine.  The present paper focuses on the novel aspects of the isoengine in comparison with medium-speed diesel engines.  In particular the design of the prototype engine and the novel combustion process are described.  Some early test results are also presented.


P541 – The Future of Liquid Biofuels


Using renewable liquid biofuels on a large scale would help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and also make a valuable contribution towards providing diversity and security to energy supplies.  Liquid biofuels could be used for bother power generation and road transport, and biofuels that offer particular potential include animal fats, vegetable oils, used cooking oil, biodiesel and bioethanol.  All of these materials have physical characteristics similar to petroleum fuel oils and the liquid biofuels can be stored and shipped in much the same way as petroleum oils.  Animal fats and vegetable oils are particularly safe to handle because they have high flash points and are stable, inert, non-toxic materials.


All of the above mentioned liquid biofuels are capable of being burned by internal combustion engines, although some biofuels may require modified combustion conditions to burn efficiently.  For example, it has been established that animal fats and vegetable oils burn much more efficiently in a diesel engine if the combustion atmosphere is enriched with oxygen.


Given appropriate Government encouragement, biofuel production could be a very substantial industry.  For example, if 1Mha of arable land and 3Mha of marginal land were devoted to growing the feedstocks required to produce biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol, the biofuels could have a potential energy content of up to 650 PJ/year, enough to make a significant contribution towards the energy requirements of the country.  The processed biofuels could have a commercial value, excluding tax, of over £5 billion/year.


Substantial Government support would be required to encourage a thriving biofuel industry.  Biofuels cost more to produce than petroleum fuels and to be competitive the biofuels would require significant tax breaks, particularly when used as road fuels.  For example, the UK Government has proposed a road duty tax incentive of 20 pence/litre for both biodiesel and bioethanol, i.e. a fuel duty of 26 pence/litre instead of the 46 pence/litre duty currently imposed on petrol and diesel.  However, with a duty of 26 pence/litre neither biodiesel nor bioethanol would be competitive with conventional road fuels, and the proposed tax break is unlikely to be enough to encourage the substantial investment needed to develop a large biofuel industry.

Volume 8 Issue 3, June 2004

P538 – Kipevu 2 Independent Power Project


Power projects in the developing world are often plagued with major operational problems, and frequently there is a regular pattern to the reasons why.  While international aid agencies make significant contributions to economic growth in developing countries, through the construction of electrical infrastructure, aid packages are often tied to plant produced in an agency’s home country, and are often little more than industrial subsidies.  Additionally, parastatal utilities often purchase the very latest technology without carefully examining its service history, the availability of local operational skills and resources, and the cost of specialist support from plant manufacturers.


This problem was recognised in the 1980s when the World Bank Group reviewed their loans for electrical power projects.  The bank then published the wide-ranging Electric Power Utility Efficiency Study (EPUES) report, supported by seven of the major international aid agencies, including the UK ODA (now Department for International Development).


IPP schemes solved many of the problems that dogged aid package power plants, but have not been a universal panacea.  Many of the early schemes were negotiated during energy crises, and the resultant PPAs were often highly disadvantageous to the purchaser.  In addition, the majority of IPP schemes are financed in US dollars, and the power purchaser and ultimately the consumers have to bear the impact of exchange rate fluctuations.


Some 15 years after EPUES publication, IPP schemes have matured.  Significant adjustments by power producers and power purchases have enabled both sides to achieve value for money, given the right technology, fuel, operating resources, training and contractual framework.


Kipevu 2 Independent Power Poject in Mombasa, Kenya, is such a scheme.


S234 – Historic Paper:  Operating experience with gas turbines with particular reference to Beznau Power Station


This paper deals with operating experience with a number of Brown Boveri Gas Turbines in industrial service, particularly those installed at Beznau Power Station, the largest plant of its kind so far built, belonging to the North Eastern Swiss Power Supply Company (NOK) which plant includes two units, one of 13,000kW and one of 27,000kW.  Reference is also made to a 5,400kW gas turbine set running at the ARBED Steel Works as Duelange (Luxemburg) as well as to the three sets installed at a Cement Mill in Pertigalete in Venezuela.


Volume 8 Issue 2, May 2004 Working Cost and Operational Report

P540 - Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2003

Historic Paper 58 – Report on Heavy-Oil Engine Working Costs (1922-23)

Volume 8 Issue 1, February 2005

P537 – Development of MAN B&W RK280, the most powerful 1,000 rpm engine in the world


MAN B&W Diesel Ltd is introducing the most powerful 1,000 rpm engine in the world for fast ferry, marine and industrial applications.  The design utilises the operational experience gained on the successful RK270 engine, which has a world leading position in the large fast ferry market.  The clean sheet design incorporates many improvements over existing engines including electronic fuel injection, underslung crankcase, rigid modular camshaft, single gear train and built-on ancillaries.


The most significant change in the engine has been the way it was designed utilising industry best practice concurrent engineering techniques, 3D modelling, predictive engineering, design reviews, risk analysis and multi-disciplinary team work in an environment of tight project management.


Three configurations of the engine, 12, 16 and 20 cylinders will be released to the market during 2003, at 450kW/cylinder plus 10% overload and after successful running of the first engines in service; the full release rating of the 20RK280 will be 10MW.


Historic Paper:  The function of the Heavy Oil Engine in connection with the General Supply of Electricity


Volume 7 Issue 5, December 2003

P536 – distillate fuel FOCUS


The face of power generation has changed significantly during the last twenty years.  There are greater demands to protect the environment and a greater desire to optimise operating profits through high reliability and availability of plant.


In the UK, and many other parts of the world, natural gas has replaced coal as the main power generation fuel.  It is readily available in most countries and is seen as the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels.


Privatisation and advances in gas turbine and combined cycle technology have made the gas turbine the preferred power generator for power stations of 100MW and upwards.


But as security of plant operation is paramount, distillate fuel oil is normally available as a back-up fuel.  Back-up fuel often takes a low priority on the power station, but is this the right approach as availability is so important?  Can the operator be sure the fuel is in a usable condition?  In short the answer is no!


This paper addresses the problems that poor fuel quality management can present to operators and provides a new solution for economically maintaining good quality clean fuel.


Historic Paper:  The Recovery of Lubricating Oil

Volume 7 Issue 4, September 2003

P535 – The Cummins QSK78 Heavy Duty Engine


A new heavy duty 18 cylinder, vee configuration, 77.6 litre displacement diesel engine producing 2,610kWm (3,500bhp) at 1,900rpm has been designed and developed by the Industrial Power Alliance and introduced into production by Cummins Inc.  The Industrial Power Alliance is a joint-venture company established by Komatsu Ltd, a Japanese manufacturer of construction equipment and engines and Cummins Inc., a world leader in diesel engine manufacturing.  The engine is a hybrid of the Komatsu six cylinder, inline configuration, 23 litre (170mm bore) 6D170-3 engine and the Cummins 16 cylinder, vee configuration, 60 litre (190mm stroke) QSK60 engine.  The engine has been designed and developed for the new “Ultra-Class” haul trucks and other large mining equipment where more engine power combined with proven reliability and durability is a key requirement.  The engine also provides vehicle operators with a “clean” solution including low emissions and effective lubrication systems to assist them in managing their local environments.


Historic Paper 60 - Electricity Supply in War Time, as effected by the improvements in Heavy-Oil Engines


Volume 7 Issue 3, July 2003

P533 – Safety at Gas Turbine Power Applications


Gas turbine plants driven power plants have become larger and more popular in recent years.  Many are based on gas turbines within acoustic enclosures.  Complex high-pressure fuel supply pipework to the turbines gives rise to an explosion hazard within the enclosures in the event of foreseeable small leaks if appropriate ventilation is not provided.  Health and Safety Executive (HSE) investigations exposed poor ventilation in some cases.  The paper describes the investigations, with reference to incident data, ignition probability, and ventilation performance modelling by computational fluid dynamics.  A criterion for the evaluation of existing and new plant is reviewed with particular reference to the ATEX Directives.  The paper describes specifically the application of demonstrably effective dilution ventilation as a basis of safety.  It describes the development and progress of the new ISO safety standard and an extensive industry funded research project, both aimed to give further guidance and basis of legal compliance.  Its scope includes micro-turbines as well as industrial and aero-derivative machines and the revision of current UK guidance.


Historic Paper S218 – Operating Experience with a 750kW Gas Turbine


This paper concentrates on the practical aspects of operation on the basis of experience gained during the first twelve months of endurance running of the Ruston and Hornsby 750kW gas turbine.  The plant is the first prototype of a production industrial gas turbine to be tested in Great Britain..


Volume 7 Issue 2, May 2003 – Working Cost and Operational Report

P534 – Working Cost and Operational Report - Stationery Engines and Gas Turbines 2002


Volume 7 Issue 1, January 2003 – P532

Design and development of the new Rolls-Royce Bergen C engine series


Traditionally, Bergen has been producing auxiliary engines for the merchant fleets – practical and reliable engines which were simple to operate and service, but still of a flexible design which also made them suitable for smaller propulsion duties in our local areas.  Later they were also successfully developed for the new oil and gas industry.


This has resulted in a concentration on engines of mainly 250mm bore since the “R” engine of the early 50s, and these have been steadily developed and renewed through the “L” type and “K” type up till the currently time.


In 1997 the decision was taken to start the development of a new engine platform at Rolls-Royce Engines Bergen (the “C” Engine Project).


Volume 6 Issue 6, November 2002 – P531

The Turbec Microturbine from Prototype to Commercial Product


Deregulation of the power industry and a demand for lower emissions are fuelling a move toward small-scale energy solutions based on natural gas.  Microturbine technology is well suited to meet the emerging need for reliable, flexible decentralised power production that offers a short term payback.


Turbec AB, a Swedish manufacturer with roots in the power generation and the automotive industries recently started delivering its first gas turbine product, the Turbec T100 CHP.  The T100 CHP is a 100 kWel combined heat and power solution based on a small, highly integrated turbine generator system.


Volume 6 Issue 5, September 2002 – P530

Caterpillar High Efficiency Engine Development G-CM34


The demand for higher output gas engines for power generation and gas compression applications encouraged Caterpillar to extend the current gas engine program up to 6MW.  The result is a new large bore spark ignited gas engine with high efficiency and low emission levels.


The basis of this development is the well proven robustly built HFO engine, the 16CM32.  This engine has the capability to withstand high mechanical loads and is designed to produce low thermal loading.  By increasing the bore diameter, the power reduction, compared to the diesel engine, was minimised with minimal changes to the engine frame.  All other gas specific components such as cylinder heads, pistons, liners and fuel system were redesigned.


To reach the targets of bmep, efficiency and low emissions, a spark-ignited pre-chamber system was developed using individually electronically controlled gas admission valves at each cylinder.  In addition, the electronic engine management system included cylinder selective detonation control.


In the autumn of 1998 the first prototype G-CM34 engine started at the test bed in Kiel and reached the ambitious program targets in a very short time.  The use of Caterpillar’s extensive gas engine experience at the design stage and development phase was the key component to meeting the predicted values and to reducing the developing time for this new product.


This paper reports the salient points of the G-CM34 development project, from the concept phase through to prototype testing and to the first plant installations.


This paper is based on a presentation at the 2nd Dessau Gas Engine Conference, June 2001.


Volume 6 Issue 4, July 2002 – P529

Wartsila 64 The biggest and the most powerful four-stroke diesel engine


Ship size has increased in the past years and consequently so has the demand for more powerful engines.


The Wartsila 64 with its 2MW power per cylinder and 640mm bore is the world’s largest medium speed engine ever built.  The 6 to 18 cylinder configuration covers power output from 12,060 up to 34,920kW.  In this power range 200 to 280 ships are delivered yearly equipped with 2 stroke main propulsion engines.


Volume 6 Issue 3, June 2002 – Working Cost and Operational Report – P528

Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines December 2001


Volume 6 Issue 2, March 2002 – P527

International Marine Exhaust Emission Legislation


The adoption in 1997 by the MARPOL Diplomatic Conference of Annex VI to the MARPOL Convention will, on ratification, extend this range of controls to limiting the air pollution from ships.  A major part of these controls, both in terms of their detail and impact on the marine industry, will be in respect of the exhaust emission limits to be introduced.  At this time, these exhaust emission controls will cover NOx emissions from diesel engines and SOx emissions from all types of combustion machinery.  In addition, there are also controls covering certain oil fuel quality matters.  In the case of the NOx controls, these are already having a significant effect on the engine design and certification process.  In contrast, the SOx controls will be largely operation based.  However, even with these, and to some extent the oil fuel quality controls, there are actions to be taken over the period prior to the entry into force of the Annex in order to ensure future compliance.


This paper gives a detailed overview of these exhaust emission requirements and how they will function within the overall ship certification process which will be required by the Annex.


Volume 6 Issue 1, January 2002 – P526

Remote Monitoring of Large Diesel Engines


Since the early days of any machinery, that was powered by anything other than man, there has been seen the need to monitor its operation.  From the author’s observations of man’s early attempts at powered machinery, it was more than justified.


Monitoring generally consisted of a man with a good set of eyes and ears.  Later we added the clipboard and the checklist or chart and, I guess the term Watchkeeper had a very literal meaning.  The objective has always been to see that the machine is functioning correctly and to try to intercept problems before they became serious, either to the machine or anyone in the vicinity.  As we have become more conscious of cost and safety issues so these basic needs have become more prominent.


Engines and specifically large diesel engines have come a long way since their beginnings and the level of reliability that we expect and receive from them would have been unheard of 50 years ago.  Materials, surface finishes, lubricants and the use of sophisticated design techniques have all worked together to achieve this.  However, as the means to achieve reliability have moved forward, so have the expectations of increased power and reduced size and weight.  There are many engines that spend their life operating very close to their maximum speed and power ratings.  So despite the advances in reliability it would be a brave or possibly foolish operator who decided that he did not need to monitor the operation of his engine.


As the engine technology has advanced so have monitoring techniques.  The big revolution came with the introduction of digital techniques and the all encompassing PC.


Thus to the title of the paper: remote monitoring.  If we cannot dispense with the man or woman to interpret the data, we can at least put that person into an office environment and allow them to monitor a number of engines.  We can present the data in a user-friendly form and we can give the engineer a wealth of data to help in the assessment.


Volume 5 Issue 5, October 2001

P524 – Oil Mist Detection as an aid to monitoring engine condition


As diesel engines become progressively more efficient by burning fuel more effectively, the only remaining significant potential for operational cost saving to be exploited is to introduce features to ensure that unnecessary maintenance is reduced.  Owners and operators of diesel power plants are increasingly seeking ways to replace preventive maintenance schedules based on operational hours by on-condition maintenance programmes that confine maintenance to the actual needs of the engine.  Such a philosophy requires appropriate use of accurate health and condition monitoring equipment that not only tracks critical performance parameters, but also provides suitable protection against more serious damage being inflicted due to incipient seizures.  Oil Mist Detectors are an important component part of this changing philosophy.


P525 – Gas Turbines and Spark Ignition Gas Engines for industrial CHP


Gas turbines are widely accepted as prime-movers for industrial CHP; spark ignition gas engines are a relatively recent innovation in this market sector; application of gas engines is often misunderstood (even by consultants!).  This paper seeks to highlight some of these misunderstandings.


Volume 5 Issue 4, July 2001 – P523

A Sustainable Energy Strategy for Wessex Water


This paper puts forward some thoughts towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy (SES) for Wessex Water.  The paper first discusses possible criteria for sustainability as they apply to energy strategy.  It then proceeds to describe the activities of the Wessex Energy Team and the energy options that the company could explore in the pursuit of a sustainable strategy.


Volume 5 Issue 3, June 2001 – Working Cost and Operational Report

P522 – Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 2000


Volume 5 Issue 2, April 2001

P521 – Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration and Catalytic NOx Reduction Augmented with Heat Recovery and Active Hydrocarbon Injection


Understanding particulate filter regeneration and lean NOx catalysis is important for the design and operation of a diesel exhaust after treatment system that can simultaneously reduce NOx, PM, HC and CO.


The experimental data presented includes soot loading and unloading (filter regeneration) curves from tests conducted on the dynamometer under several different conditions.  A comparison is made between the performance of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and catalyzed DPFs based on the rate of soot loading and burnoff.  The effect of cell density on the performance of the DPFs is discussed.  Filter regenerations have been carried out both by burnoff at high load conditions and by fuel-assisted burnoff via the injection of fuel upstream of the filter.  Comparisons were made between two modes of introducing supplementary fuel (with and without air assist). NOx conversion data for typical lean NOx catalysts are presented.  Supplementary fuel injection is employed for NOx reduction and also for providing the high temperatures for filter regeneration.


Experimental results indicate that the catalyzed DPFs regenerate at a much faster rate than the uncatalyzed DPFs at the same engine exhaust conditions.  DPF regeneration was demonstrated by generating an exotherm via the oxidation of supplementary hydrocarbons.  It was found that supplementary fuel injection also helped to increase the conversion of NOx within the operating windows of lean NOx catalysts (LNCs).


CP001 – Treating Fuels in the New Millennium


The quality of marine bunkers has over the past 25 years influenced the development of cleaning systems dramatically and contributed largely to the establishment of fuel oil quality standards.  Amongst other things, these have assisted the user and equipment manufacturer in operation and product development issues respectively.  This paper deals with the most significant developments in the cleaning of these heavy fuels by centrifugal separation and addresses the potential fuel-related problems, which the cleaning system must try to counteract.


Volume 5 Issue 1, January 2001

P520 – Economic Considerations of Power Plant Refurbishment Versus New Build


The only way to assess economics and risks is to fully understand the options.  


Consider the starting points:


       Green field site, new building and modern equipment – all compatible and following well-established procedures for installation and commissioning.

       Existing building and facilities.  Proven equipment in need of overhaul.

       Green field site utilising refurbished equipment.


It is of course necessary to quantify the extent of refurbishment that in turn has a very significant bearing on the refurbishment approach and cost.


The Challenges to Supplier and User in the Coming Decade (Ship Propulsion Systems Conference 2000)


The challenges to the suppliers of marine propulsion systems in the coming decade from the perspective of an individual company should in many respects be no different to the challenges that existed in the past.  Today however there is an added dimension that arises directly from the rate at which new technology is being developed and applied.


Company survival essentially depends on possessing a product, or a range of products, that is sought by the targeted market.  Market demand alone will not guarantee success however, as in a competitive environment, this will largely depend on high market share and sustainable growth, which in turn are highly dependant on the product satisfying the current and perceived future requirements of the market-place, in terms of price, delivery, performance, reliability and cost of ownership characteristics.


Volume 4 Issue 5, October 2000

P518 – Diesel Engines and Gas Turbines in Cruise Vessel Propulsion


The Celebrity Cruises’ gas turbine-driven cruising vessel Millennium made her maiden voyage this summer.  The 91,000 gt vessel with a passenger capacity of 1,950 (lower berth) denotes a technological shift in cruise ship design, primarily because she is the first cruise ship powered by a pure gas turbine plant.  Apart from this, the ship has the biggest azimuthing pods ever built (two Mermaid pods of 19.5MW each).  Currently there are three further cruise ships of this series under construction.


P519 - The H.A.M. (Humid Air Motor) System:  A simple way to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines of all sizes


The evolution of the diesel engine faces great obstacles and challenges with regard to the creation of environmentally friendly designs.  One of the major drawbacks of the modern diesel engine is its high emission of NOx.  Unfortunately, measures aimed at decreasing NOx emissions in diesel engines will almost always conflict with high efficiency.


Anatomy of a Modern Diesel Engine, Part 3


The last two articles in this series for students and practical engineers discussed basic engine performance parameters, the engine frame, pistons and connecting rods.  This article touches upon the design and performance of the fuel injection equipment; the pumps, pipes, injectors, nozzles and fuel cams that are essential for efficient engine operation.


Volume 4 Issue 4, July 2000

P517 - Managing Lubricating Oils in Service to Optimise Life and Minimise Cost


In a business where efficiency is the keyword and the drive for ultimate performance unrelenting, stresses on lubricants are ever greater.  More severe operating conditions demand higher specification products inevitably resulting in increased lubricant cost.  This coupled with higher disposal tariffs and stricter environmental controls makes it ever more important to make oil last longer.  But the cost of replacing and disposing of lubricant is often small compared with the associated cost of machine downtime and lost output involved in carrying out an oil change, or even worse, in repairing plant which has failed without warning.  Nowhere is this more critical than in today's highly competitive power generation industry.


Correctly applied, Oil Condition Monitoring (OCM), can be an effective tool not only in optimising oil change intervals, without compromising the protection of plant and equipment, but also in the early detection of impending problems allowing timely corrective action to be taken thereby reducing maintenance and replacement costs and minimising unplanned downtime resulting in lower overall operating costs.


Anatomy of a Modern Diesel Engine, Part 2


Pistons - The piston is one of the most critical components of a diesel engine.  It must transmit gas forces to the connecting rod, support the piston rings and guide the small end assembly within the bore.  It must survive under conditions of boundary lubrication and it is attacked by heat, acidic and ash laden gases under varying pressures.


Volume 4 Issue 3, June 2000 - Working Cost & Operational Report

P516 - Working Cost & Operational Report Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1999


Volume 4 Issue 2, April 2000

P515 - Four Stroke Marine Diesel Engines


When in 1992 MaK introduced the new M20 engine with a power range from 900kW to 1,710kW at 900 to 1,000rpm it was the result of an intense internal evaluation process.  From the beginning the following targets were set:

1. The design should be transferable

2. To allow production in Europe

3. Ease of maintenance

4. In-house production

5. IMO exhaust gas regulation


Anatomy of a Modern Diesel Engine, Part 1


What influences component design and why are particular materials important?  George Murray explores the anatomy of the diesel and suggests some possible answers.


Volume 4 Issue 1, January 2000 - P514

Application of Computer Systems in the improvement of Power Generation Operation and Maintenance Management


In almost every region of the world advances in technology, deregulation of markets, privatisation and liberalisation have had an astounding effect on the management of power plant operations and maintenance.  These changes have produced a growing need for power plants to use the best available technology and computer systems in the improvement of operations and maintenance of power generation facilities, i.e. Computer Management Systems.


Volume 3 Issue 5, October 1999

P512 - The Industrial Trent Gas Turbine


In the increasingly competitive market of distributed power, plant operators are becoming more demanding of equipment reliability, availability and cost of ownership.  Against this backdrop Rolls-Royce launched the Industrial Trent, their latest aeroderivative gas turbine, into commercial operation.  This paper looks at the technology behind the Industrial Trent and how it has evolved from its aero counterpart.


P513 - New, Long Life, Self Cleaning Lube Oil Filtration for Diesel Engines


The role of the lube oil filter system on diesel engines is to protect critical engine components from harmful particles.  Maximum engine life is dependent on the proper use of an oil filter system designed for that engine.  This paper reviews a new low maintenance filtration system for use on diesel engines as designed by Alfa Laval Ltd and developed by Cummins Engine Co.  This new filter system, named Eliminator, is comprised of an integral full-flow and bypass filter.  The full-flow filtration is designed as a series of wire mesh disks which are continually back-flushed as a self-cleaning feature.  The bypass filtration consists of a highly effective centrifugal filter.


Volume 3 Issue 4, July 1999

P511 - The Phased Development and Implementation of a Large Cogeneration Plant


This paper examines the development of large-scale cogeneration plants in conjunction with host site developments.


It focuses on the issues surrounding the selection, installation and commissioning of key plant items such as the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator, boiler and steam turbine.


Finally it considers the importance of integrating the new steam plant with an existing (expanding) system which has large variations in steam demand.


Engine Designs


Diesel and gas engine capabilities have improved rapidly since this prime mover became commercially viable in the early 1900s.  Recognising the growing importance of this efficient form of power generation, a group of power station chief engineers founded the Diesel Users Association in 1913.  This Association is now The Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers (IDGTE).


As industry became progressively more reliant on diesel and gas engines for driving factory machinery and for electric power generation, a range of problems were encountered during the early period of rapid growth, which were discussed within the forum of the Diesel Users Association.  This service feedback, incorporating valuable statistical data on operating experience, that is still collated and published today, has assisted engine makers and ancillary equipment suppliers over the years to refine their products and meet the demands of the market.


Volume 3 Issue 3, June 1999 - Working Cost & Operational Report

P510 - Working Cost & Operational Report Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1998


Volume 3 Issue 2, April 1999 - P509

Waste Heat to Water


Clean, high quality water is essential for reliable power plant operation and can be a significant extra cost if an adequate, reliable supply is not available.  Yet frequently diesels and gas turbine power systems are installed in remote locations where the only source of water is from sea, river or bore hole water.


The paper reviews the thermodynamics of desalination, and how greater utilisation of waster heat from power plants can provide high quality water for industrial and domestic consumption.


Volume 3 Issue 1, January 1999

P508 - Gasification of Refinery Residual Oil and Subsequent Generation of Electricity


The increasing pressures to achieve environmental improvement have required changes in almost every energy-related industry.  The petrochemical industry is no exception, with the specifications for power and transport fuels becoming much tighter.  However, this has left the refineries with a problem - larger amounts of heavy residual oil with a higher sulphur content.  Refineries have had to add increasing quantities of good quality "cutter stock" to sell it as "HFO" in power stations or in ships as "Bunker C" and even these are facing the prospect of tighter sulphur content controls.  Refinery margins are too small to pay for major clean-up investment and a new market for refinery waste has to be found.


Gasifying such residues has been commercially successful on a small scale for over 40 years and larger plants for total disposal can provide an alternative fuel for modern CCGTs.


This paper describes the nature of the refinery's problem, the gasification processes possible, and treatment of the gas to provide an ideal fuel.  Brief mention is made of the diverse feedstocks which can be used, including biomass, coal, Orimulsion®  and MSW.  Some current commercial projects are described, demonstrating that this technology is accepted worldwide.


Biogas on the Farm


Production of electrical power burning biogas is now an established procedure using a simple method of converting diesel engines without the complication of ignition coils and spark plugs.  (Converted petrol engines, having a much lower compression ratio, do not run efficiently.)


Volume 2 Issue 5, October 1998

P506 - Stirling Engine Powered Micro Co-Generation


Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has significant potential for the more efficient use of fossil fuels and the reduction of CO2 and other polluting emissions.  It also offers the possibility of reduced infrastructure requirements, (and consequent environmental impact) both in terms of large scale generators and the associated transmission and distribution facilities, by the nature of "embedded" generation.  Indeed, the evolution from central generating plant to distributed generation is seen by many as a natural response to environmental demands and to the commercial pressures imposed by an increasingly competitive market.


In the UK, economic considerations limit existing CHP technologies to the size range of 30kWe and above, although tax advantages make 15kWe (and even smaller) viable in some countries.  This is primarily due to the high unit maintenance and capital costs of equipment.  The internal combustion engines generally applied are of limited durability, reliability and efficiency and produce relatively high levels of noise and air pollution.


Stirling engines offer better energy efficiency and reliability, lower exhaust emission and noise levels.  They also permit a greater flexibility than internal combustion engines in the choice of fossil fuels and alternative renewable energy sources.  Stirling engines are potentially prime movers in CHP systems on the micro scale, operating effectively at outputs as low as 800We.


P507 - The Diesel Gas Engine


With the increased availability of gas and the requirement to minimise emissions, not only of noxious gases but also of carbon dioxide, has come a renewed interest in gas burning engines.


For large power demands the gas turbine is proving most attractive, particularly the very high efficiency aero derivative, but for smaller powers the reciprocating engine is still a preferred choice.  There are however an increasing number of alternative ways of burning gas in an engine, to include the gas diesel engines.  A brief description of each technology is provided with a suggestion for the direction that engine development may take.


Volume 2 Issue 4, July 1998 - P505

Turbines & Reciprocating Engines Producing Power from Natural Gas Pressure Reductions in the Supply System


The authors have been involved over a number of years with promotion of the use of turbine and reciprocating engines as a means of recovering energy from the necessary pressure reductions which occur in natural gas transmission and distribution systems.  The paper reviews the thermodynamics involved, the types of machines which have been used with emphasis on a remarkably successful reciprocating machine and the economics of application.  The paper also considers the potential in the United Kingdom for expander generators and addresses the question as to why there are so many installations operating in continental Europe and not in the UK.


Volume 2 Issue 3, June 1998 - Working Cost and Operational Report P504

Working Cost and Operational Report - Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1997


Volume 2 Issue 2, April 1998 - P503

Large End Bearing Temperature Measurement Development, Testing and Application


For more than twenty years Controle Mesure Regulation (CMR) and Societe D'Etude des Moteurs Thermiques (SEMT) Pielstick have collaborated and gained great experience in the protection of main bearings on diesel engines.


In order to improve the monitoring of the crankshaft line, CMR developed a new temperature sensor for the large end bearings (TB2).  This sensor has been patented.  The paper describes the principle of this sensor and shows the possibility of measuring the temperature of rotating parts with the TB2.


In service examples of installations of the TB2 will be used to highlight the interest of this measuring equipment.  


A detailed description of a preliminary test carried out by SEMT Pielstick on a test bed engine will be shown to demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument and its performance.  Information is given on the temperature behaviour of the large end bearing with speed and load variations.


An account of a long term test by Mobil Shipping Co. is based on a three year trial on several in service engines.


Finally, reference is made to the rules edited by the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), regarding the monitoring of all bearings of the moving parts of the engine, and the possibility of the TB2 satisfying these requirements.


Volume 2 Issue 1, January 1998

P501 – Re-Power with the Caterpillar 3600 HFO Generator Set


This paper describes the process of installation of a Caterpillar 3616 HFO generating set into an existing generation facility.  Whilst not a terribly difficult undertaking, the effort involved cannot be underestimated.


The opportunity arose in 1994 to perform this task at a wire factory located in the west of England.  The issues arising in the course of this undertaking are described in detail, together with a synopsis of early operational experience.


P502 – Producing Independent Power


Several different parameters are used to measure the performance of the power unit.  Naturally the economical parameters are usually in the balance sheet, but on the non-economical side, the most commonly used parameters to follow the performance of the power units are availability, reliability and capacity factor.  Out of these, availability is the most commonly used, but that alone does not always give a true picture about the performance of the power unit.  This is the reason why the AFUP includes not only availability but also reliability, capacity factor and load factor.


Volume 1 Issue 5, October 1997

P500 – Emission Control – Two-stroke Low Speed Diesel Engines


General awareness of environmental issues is increasing rapidly.  Diesel engine makers were first involved in questions regarding exhaust gas emissions in the field of stationary applications.


A study of the exhaust gas emissions from a diesel engine represents a challenge to both the engine designer and to makers of exhaust gas treatment equipment.  It is also a valuable tool for reaching a deeper understanding of the engine combustion process.  Such understanding has led to more serious treatment of environmental issues in connection with the design and application of diesel engines.


Anticipating this development, MAN B&W initiated studies of the emission characteristics of their engines some fifteen years ago.  These studies included work on finding techniques for reducing the exhaust gas emissions to comply with current as well as anticipated future rules.  The main focus has so far been on reducing the emission of nitrogen oxides, NOx.  As a result, we have already supplied emission control equipment for a number of ships and stationary plants.


Within the IMO (International Maritime Organisation) there are now discussions of emissions limitations in the form of air pollution at sea.  Authorities in various parts of the world are taking similar steps.  An example is the proposed EPA (US – Environmental Protection Agency) rules currently under discussion.  Proposals from both authorities are dealt with in the paper, and technologies designed to meet the proposals are discussed.  Furthermore, the World Bank has recently issued a proposal for environmental guidelines based on the IMO rules.


Renewable Energy from Independent Power Producers


This paper provides an overview of how Renewable Energy Technologies have progressed in recent years, the part they play in a very diverse UK Electricity Supply Industry now nearly open to full competition, and the enablement mechanism currently in place to promote their uptake.  Consideration is given to their commercialisation and how effectively they are likely to compete alongside conventional power generation into the future.  Although environmentally friendly, the argument that “it’s a good thing” is unlikely to sustain a Renewable Energy industry and the technologies will ultimately need to be commercially and technically attractive for their survival in an industry where privatisation and competition have driven all costs in the supply chain steady downwards.



Volume 1 Issue 4, July/August 1997

P499 – Gas Turbine Condition Monitoring Systems – An Integrated Approach


The capability of a condition monitoring system for effective monitoring of faults and incipient problems depends on the design and integration of the system as much as the sensors and signal analysis techniques used.  The first step is to define the requirement which can typically be summarised as follows:


1.     reduce the number and severity of failure incidents between scheduled overhauls

2.     improve the diagnostic and prognostic capability so that maintenance can be planned and will target the components wit incipient or development faults

3.     enable the calculation of engine usage and prediction of remaining life

4.     minimise consequential damage

5.     achieve the above with the minimum sensor fit


Other, more ambitious targets include putting the engine on condition; and assessment of the long term effects of ingested materials or lower quality fuel on the engine life and performance.


The high plant availability and low maintenance cost requirements currently demanded by operators necessitate efficient, cost effective monitoring systems.


The Nomination of Generators for Powering Non-Linear Loads


Non linear loads such as semi-conductor thyristor/rectifier loads generate harmonics in their current waveform which in turn leads to harmonic distortion of the supply voltage waveform.  Depending upon degree of harmonic voltage waveform distortion, this may lead to either instablility of the generators excitation system or to the control system of the loads applied to the generator.


Most generators produced today can cope with quite high levels of waveform distortion without detrimental effect to themselves, however, most problems occur with electronic power device control equipment trying to synchronise with a distorted waveform.


Many  questions have been asked regarding the application of generators for powering non-linear loads, therefore the main aim of this paper is to clarify the situation.


Volume 1 Issue 3, June 1997 – Working Cost and Operational Report

P498 – Working Cost and Operational Report – Stationary Engines and Gas Turbines 1996


Volume 1 Issue 2, April 1997

P497 – Design and Development of the 12VP185


Design criteria are set out for a compact high-speed diesel engine aimed at achieving a wide market appeal and capable of addressing key targets of good fuel economy, low emissions, low through-life costs and economic manufacture and describes how these targets have been answered by innovative concepts in the design and development process.


The Effective Operation of Modern CHP Plants


With the ever increasing demands to reduce energy costs, environmental emissions and increase plant efficiency, consideration must be given to the application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as an effective form of energy provision.


It is often thought, that conventional boiler plant and systems can be converted to an effective CHP scheme without incurring significant cost and disruption to services.  In some instances this is true however, it is important that in every case we must undertake a detailed site survey.  This will have the added benefit of giving a true and accurate proposal for such a scheme, it will in addition identify quickly and at minimum cost any areas that will counteract the successful implementation of CHP on site.


Volume 1 Issue 1, January-February 1997

P496 - Power Generation from Biogas


The IDGTE made a significant contribution to a “Technical Survey of Power Generation from Biogas” commissioned via a main contractor by ETSU, the Energy Technology Support Unit, for the Department of Trade.


This forms part of the support provided by ETSU to promote cost effective use of non fossil fuels and advancement of knowledge, being shared objectives of the IDGTE.


The writer has utilised his own knowledge and experience, and that of other members who specialise in this field, to compile the IDGTE contribution – to include some additional notes.


The paper may therefore be used to provide an initial insight into the topics discussed, with a view to the reader then consulting specialists in the particular area of interest.


A High Performance Hybrid Optical Current Transformer (Young Power Engineer’s Award 1996)


Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution systems represent substantial investments for the electrical power supply industry, and so are customarily protected from faults through the use of relays and circuit breakers.  A current transformer (CT) for measuring electric currents at certain strategic points along the higher power systems has been an integral component, not only in such protective schemes, but also for metering purposes.  A conventional CT for these high voltage applications is inherently large and expensive due to electrical insulation requirements.  As electric power supply systems are increasingly operated close to optimum economic efficiency, the cost and limitations of the conventional CT become gain limiting factors.  Therefore for high efficiency gains, improved plant and system monitoring methods are required.  To maximise profit, such methods rely upon evolving the use of new technologies such as optical fibre based sensing systems.  An example of such a system which has been considered as offering significant benefits but has yet to be fully accepted commercially is an optical fibre current monitoring system for use on high voltage power lines and circuit breakers.


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